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Welcome to the Math4AI site associated with the MSc in Artificial Intelligence from the University of Amsterdam. This site is provided to help you familiarize yourself with the mathematics needed to become proficient in machine learning.


The essential mathematics any student of machine learning should know are linear algebra, multivariate calculus, and statistics. These three areas of mathematics truly form the foundation of all topics in machine learning. That is why our ‘essentials’ sections are dedicated to covering the most important topics within these areas for our purposes:

  • Linear algebra, studying how to represent, transform, and analyze high dimensional data as vectors.
  • Multivariate calculus, studying how to do differential calculus in high dimensional spaces.
  • Statistics, studying how to analyze data, quantify uncertainty, and describe random events.

Each section contains a tl;dr on top and a summary at the bottom discussing the highlights of the section, and one important exercise to help you understand the main point of the section. Please notice the search bar at the top if you want to quickly look for a topic (e.g. ‘marginalization’).

If you see any errors on this site, please write us and we will make sure to address them as soon as possible.

Floor Eijkelboom & Tin Hadži Veljković